Agung Palembang mosque initially called Sultan Mosque and built in 1738 by Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin I Jayo Wikramo. Dedication made this mosque on 28 Jumadil Beginning in 1151 H (26 May 1748). The size of the first mosque built in the area of 1080 square meters with a capacity congregation in 1200. Expansion is done with the first Sayid Umar bin Muhammad Assegaf Altoha and Sayid bin Achmad Syech Sahab conducted in the year 1897 under the leadership Nataagama Prince Ibn Mustafa Karta mangala Raden Kamaluddin.
In early development (1738-1748), as old mosques in Indonesia, the Sultan Mosque is initially not have any towers. Then the government of Sultan Ahmad Najamudin (1758-1774) then built the tower that is located quite separately in the west. Its tower as in the form of a tower building with pagoda roof form culminate curve. On the outside terrace of the tower there is a fenced corral the body.
The form of the mosque which is now known by the name of the Great Mosque, not much different as we see now. The current form of this experience has been many times renovation and expansion. In the beginning the improvement made by the Dutch government after years of war occurred in 1819 and 1821. After repairs done and then do the addition / expansion in 1893, 1916, 1950s, 1970s, and finally in the 1990s. Renovation work on the development and 1970's by Pertamina, also made the tower so that the reach of the current. Tower with the original Chinese-style roof that does not collapse in the right.
Expanding the second time in 1930. 1952 be extended again by the Foundation of the Great Mosque in the year 1966-1969 to build the second floor so knowledgeable mosque until now 5520 square meters with a capacity 7750.
Great Mosque is a mosque, an old and very important in the history of Palembang. Mosques around the age of 259 years is located in Kelurahan Ilir 19, Kecamatan Ilir Barat I, right in the meeting between Jalan Merdeka and Jalan Sudirman, the city of Palembang. Not far from there, there Ampera bridge. Mosque and the bridge has become a land mark of the city until now.
In its history, the mosque which is located in the center of the kingdom is the center of the study that delivered a number of Islamic scholars on important zamannya. Sheik Abdus Samad al-Palembani, Fachruddin Pack, and Abdullah bin Syihabuddin is that some scholars working in the mosque and it has an important role in the Islamic discourse and praksis